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Initial D First Stage (Dub) Episode 7 !!TOP!!

Many researchers have reported relationships between the calcification stages of individual teeth and skeletal maturity. A few studies are available in the literature about Indian populations. In view of this fact, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the dental calcification stages and skeletal maturity stages among North-Indian individuals. The objective of this study was to determine whether dental calcification can be used as a first-level diagnostic tool for assessment of skeletal maturity.

Initial D First Stage (Dub) Episode 7

The study participants included (60 males, 60 females) ranging from 7 to 13 years. A total of 120 dental panoramic radiographs and hand-wrist radiographs were obtained and analyzed. Calcification stages of the mandibular dentition (canines, first premolars, second premolars, and second molars) were rated according to the system of Demirjian et al. Skeletal maturity indicators stages were determined using the Fishman method.

While prior research has shown that the education gap in unemployment increased during the Great Recession (OECD, 2010; Grusky et al., 2011), which ended a period of stability across Western Europe from the 1990s until 2007 (Gebel and Giesecke, 2011), this paper first extends previous research to include the post-recession period. Second, it conducts a two-step multilevel analysis to explore what moderates the impact of the economic cycle on the education gap in unemployment. The aim is to provide a more nuanced picture of the factors that influence changes in the education gap in unemployment. This aligns with previous comparative work across OECD countries that shows the importance of how institutional labour market features interact with macro shocks (Gebel and Giesecke, 2011; Bertola et al., 2007; DiPrete et al., 2006). This paper includes 28 European countries and the United States (US), spanning from 2000 to 2014 (the first year where unemployment fell across the European Union after the recession). The first stage uses logistic regression models to estimate the unemployment gap across individuals according to educational attainment in each country and year for the whole sample and, separately, by gender and age group. These estimated gaps are subsequently used as the dependent variable in second-stage macro-level models for the panel of all 29 countries. GDP changes and GDP level are both used as indicators of the strength of economic fluctuations. In terms of institutional characteristics, the analysis considers the prevalence of temporary and public employment as well as the stringency of employment protection legislation.

Across countries, institutional labour market settings may either subdue or amplify the impact of the economic cycle (DiPrete et al., 2006). Following labour reforms in the 1990s, temporary work started to expand in OECD countries and has continued to do so in recent years. This rise was especially pronounced in Southern Europe (Dolado et al., 2000). Temporary employment was more common in 2000 among lower-educated persons (13% across all countries studied here) than among medium- (7%) or higher-educated persons (10%). By 2014, this gap had grown slightly (low: 16%, medium: 11%, high: 11%). However, these differences are moderate and some countries have similar temporary employment rates between education groups or even higher rates among highly educated workers. As a general observation, the proportion of temporary workers drops in the first stage of a recession (due to higher outflow rates) and rises again, just after the trough (Holmlund and Storrie, 2002). Hence, as the economy slowly picks up, temporary positions may be the first opportunities for low-educated persons to re-enter the labour market (Holmlund and Storrie, 2002; Barbieri and Scherer, 2009). Nevertheless, temporary employment is not a desirable form of employment for many. Notably, it has been linked to a number of adverse outcomes, such as higher employment insecurity and lower job satisfaction (OECD, 2002), a higher risk of in-work poverty (Van Lancker, 2012) and lower career stability (Blanchard and Landier, 2002). A high share of temporary workers accept this arrangement because they are unable to find a permanent job (Bell and Blanchflower, 2011b). Because temporary employment is more prevalent among lower educated persons, the education gap in unemployment is expected to be lower when the share of temporary employment is higher (hypothesis 2).

A two-step multilevel approach (Gebel and Giesecke, 2011; Gebel and Giesecke, 2016) was used to evaluate the impact of economic fluctuations on inequality in unemployment and the moderating role of labour market institutions. The first stage employed logistic regression models to estimate the association of educational attainment with unemployment risk (controlling for gender and age) for each country and year for a sample of approximately 23 million observations. Since our main interest lies in understanding the dynamics of the education gap in unemployment across business cycle and its contextual moderators, the models remain parsimonious in the first stage and only include gender and age, while they omit other factors, such as sector, to preserve the sample's heterogeneity.

Regardless of the physiological or metabolic adaptations that Deinococcus may employ to enhance survival, it is hard to explain extreme genome reconstitution without considering DNA repair. As originally defined by Daly and Minton [3], and reinforced more recently by Radman and colleagues [4],[5], genome reconstitution in Deinococcus proceeds in two phases. The first phase has been attributed to a process dubbed extended synthesis-dependent single-strand DNA annealing (ESDSA) [4],[5]. The second phase involves RecA protein-mediated double-strand break repair. Some initial studies suggested that the first phase of repair did not involve the Deinococcus RecA protein, but more recent work has documented a role for RecA in both phases [4],[5]. ESDSA involves considerable nuclease activity to generate single-stranded DNA, strand invasion mediated by the RecA and/or RadA proteins, and extensive DNA synthesis primed by the invading strands prior to the annealing steps [4],[5].

The first stage, extended synthesis-dependent single-strand annealing (ESDSA) is dominated by nuclease and DNA polymerase functions. The second stage is a more conventional RecA-mediated double-strand break repair process focused on the final splicing of large chromosomal segments.

In two important reports in this issue of PLoS Genetics, Sommer and colleagues convert much recent speculation into substance. In the first report [6], the Chandler and Sommer laboratories collaborate to explore the mechanism of transposition of element ISDra2. This transposon is a member of a family of elements that transpose via single-stranded DNA intermediates. Transposition is activated by irradiation of Deinococcus. The work not only documents the transposition mechanism, it reinforces the proposition that extensive lengths of single-stranded genomic DNA are generated in the early stages of genome reconstitution in this bacterium. As a bonus, the work provides hope for the development of in vivo transposition as a tool for genetic manipulation of this genome. 041b061a72


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